Abstract: | In this thesis I present a theory of a macroscopic singlet-triplet qubit in quantum dots embedded in nanowires, each containing 4 electrons and together simulating an artficial Haldane gap material. A Haldane gap material exhibits a 4-fold degenerate ground state separated by an energy gap from excitations. The ground state is equivalent to a degenerate spin-singlet and -triplet state. The 4 degenerate states exhibit the characteristics of spins-1/2 localized on either end of the chain. These states may be used as a coded qubit for quantum information processing.
Using the effective mass approximation, I calculate single-particle energy levels of one and two quantum dots in a quantum wire. Using these energy levels I compute the Coulomb matrix elements of the interacting Hamiltonian. Using configuration interaction I demonstrate that the ground state of a quantum dot with 4 electrons is a spin-1 state. I then show that the two dot system behaves approximately like two spin-1 objects interacting via an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Hamiltonian. While the Heisenberg model is approximate, the two dots have a spin-0 ground-state, indicating antiferromagnetic coupling. I then present a simpler spin model to illustrate the physical parameters which control this interaction. Finally, I present a brief solution to the Heisenberg Hamiltonian for finite spin-chains, and show how one can manipulate the singlet-triplet combined ground state of the spin-chain via localized magnetic field, realizing a singlet-triplet qubit in a macroscopic semiconductor device. |