Numeric Modelling of Water Hammer Effects in Penstocks

Title: Numeric Modelling of Water Hammer Effects in Penstocks
Authors: Bernard, Dominic
Date: 2013
Abstract: Water hammer represents a complex hydraulic phenomenon with significant consequences on the proper functioning and safety of operation for pipe and conduit systems. The complexity and intricate physics of water hammer translated into significant difficulties associated firstly, with finding a proper solution for understanding the mechanism of its occurrence and, secondly, relating to proposing technically and economically viable design methods and devices that would help reduce and mitigate water hammer effects. In this context, the present thesis deals with the numerical modeling of the transient behaviour of water pipe segments. Following an extensive literature review of the state-of-the-art on the water hammer mechanisms and past work on experimental, analytical and numerical analysis of this phenomenon, a three dimensional numerical model of the water hammer in a pipe which considers the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is developed using a Finite Element Method – Finite Volume Method (FEM-FVM) technique. Structural and fluid computational results based on rapid and slow gate closure scenarios are compared with existing closed-form solutions of the water hammer. A parametric study is also performed on a simply supported pipe segment to determine the influence of various design parameter. A systematic sensitivity analysis was conducted and a ranking mechanism was established for the importance of each parameter on the fluid fields and structural response. A first comparative analysis is conducted on horizontally and vertically bent elevated pipe segments to quantify the influence of the bend angle on the results. A second comparative analysis is performed on a horizontally bent segment buried in soil to determine the influence of the pipe interaction with the soil on the response. It is observed that the thickness, span, initial velocity and bend angle had a significant impact on the pressure and structural response. The presence of soil was observed to have a significant benefit in decreasing the von-Mises stresses.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
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