The application of A.C. impedance spectroscopy on the durability of hydrated cement paste subjected to various environmental conditions.
|Title:||The application of A.C. impedance spectroscopy on the durability of hydrated cement paste subjected to various environmental conditions.|
|Abstract:||Harsh Canadian winters cause many problems in reinforced concrete structures due to damaging freezing-thawing cycles which is exacerbated by the heavy use of de-icing salts on roadways. Evaluation of concrete durability with current ASTM methods may give unreliable results and are destructive to the structure. A relatively new and novel approach to evaluating the durability of concrete uses A. C. Impedance Spectroscopy (ACIS). Hydrated cement paste (hcp), mortar, brick and vycor glass were evaluated using ACIS during drying-rewetting and freezing-thawing cycles. Thermal mechanical analysis (TMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were also conducted and used as references. Results indicate that ACIS can be used to successfully evaluate the pore structure of hcp. The results from the drying-rewetting cycles are consistent with the pore coarsening theory. ACIS revealed pore structure changes consistent with the mechanical strains and pore solution chemistry. Increased pore continuity with each drying-rewetting cycle was indicated by a reduction in sample resistance. Unique tests were conducted on hydrated cement paste, mortar, brick and vycor glass that measured the ACIS and mechanical strains simultaneously while undergoing temperature changes. The temperature was lowered from 5°C to -80°C and then raised to +20°C. The ACIS results indicate that durability of the material can be assessed using the parameters R, material resistance, and phi, indicative of the frequency dispersion angle. The resistance on freezing values correlates with the amount of pore water freezing. The phi values on freezing are representative of the pore size distribution of the test sample. Resistance and phi data from freezing-thawing tests can be analyzed to assess durability of the sample. A material that is durable to freezing-thawing cycles can be described as having a high resistance at room temperature, a low freezing resistance and small changes in phi. Results were consistent among all the materials tested. Freezing-thawing tests were also conducted on specimens resaturated with salt solutions (5%, 10%, 15%). The results of these tests indicated a lower incipient freezing temperature, increase in pore blockage temperatures, and increased mobility of the pore water during freezing (increase in the change to phi). A series of test were conducted to evaluate the electrode polarization effects associated with the permittivity values at low frequencies. Teflon sheets were used to minimize the electrode polarization effects. It is shown that electrode polarization effects dominate over bulk polarization effects. Effects vary with the porosity of the material.|
|Collection||Thèses, 1910 - 2010 // Theses, 1910 - 2010|