The Role of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Breast Cancer Mediated Osteolysis

Title: The Role of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Breast Cancer Mediated Osteolysis
Authors: Landon, Katelyn
Date: 2017
Embargo: 2019-01-10
Abstract: Breast cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bone, where it perpetuates the vicious cycle leading to osteolytic lesions. This occurs when secreted factors from breast cancer cells disrupt bone homeostasis by deregulation of osteoblast bone formation, and enhance osteoclast bone degradation thereby releasing bone matrix bound growth factors leading to further tumor growth. Although the use of osteoclast targeting agents, such as bisphosphonates and RANK-L inhibitors, are common practice for the treatment of bone metastasis, they have not been shown to increase patient survival. We therefore sought to investigate the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a potential therapeutic target, in the treatment of breast cancer mediated osteolysis. FAK is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase known to directly regulate tumor progression and metastasis; it is also expressed in all of the cell types involved in breast cancer mediated osteolysis. Thus, we hypothesized that the inhibition of FAK would restore normal bone homeostasis, as well as mediate direct anti-tumor activity. FAK depletion resulted in the decrease of expression of several osteolytic factors secreted by breast cancer cells. However, the use of FAK depleted breast cancer conditioned media did not prevent breast cancer mediated osteoclastogenesis in an osteoblast/osteoclast coculture. In monoculture however, using the FAK inhibitor PF-271, we have shown that FAK inhibition leads to increased apoptosis of mature osteoclasts, and their decreased ability to degrade mineralized bone matrix, perhaps in part due to reduced expression of lytic factors such as tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K. Further, FAK inhibition in osteoblast monoculture led to a decrease in their ability to express the maturation factor alkaline phosphatase, and also inhibited their ability to induce mineralization. This inhibition may be due in part to the specific effects of FAK inhibition using PF-271, which may result in decreased levels of p53 in treated osteoblasts. These results suggests that the pharmacological inhibition of FAK can effect all three cell types involved in the vicious cycle of bone metastasis, and as such could be a beneficial therapeutic for patients with bone metastasis resulting in prevention of bone degradation along with direct inhibition of tumor growth. However, it may require further evaluation in animal models to determine if observed effects on osteoblast activity in vitro also occurs in vivo with possible detrimental effects on restoration of damaged bone.
CollectionThèses - Embargo // Theses - Embargo