The Impact of Ageing, Gamma(γ)-irradiation, and Varying Concentrations of Phosphate on the Stability and Solubility of Biogenic Iron Oxides (BIOS) in the Presence of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32

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Title: The Impact of Ageing, Gamma(γ)-irradiation, and Varying Concentrations of Phosphate on the Stability and Solubility of Biogenic Iron Oxides (BIOS) in the Presence of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32
Authors: Najem, Tarek
Date: 2017
Abstract: The redox cycling of iron is intimately linked to the cycling of C, S, N, P as well as the speciation, mobility, and bioavailability of various toxic contaminants in soils and sediments. Within these environments, the cycling of iron is catalytically driven by iron-oxidizing (FeOB) and iron reducing bacteria (FeRB) which mediate the formation, transformation, and dissolution of various iron-bearing minerals. Under oxic conditions, FeOB promote the formation of iron oxides on or in close proximity of their cell walls and extracellular polymeric substances, and such composite, termed biogenic iron oxides (BIOS), offers highly reactive heterogenous sites that efficiently immobilize trace metals and contaminants alike. However, under reducing conditions, FeRB mediate the reductive dissolution of BIOS and in turn lead to the remobilization of associated contaminants. Conversely, contaminants may become immobilized by secondary iron minerals that form from the metabolic activity of FeRB. Therefore, determining the factors that influence the reactivity of BIOS, as well as the formation of secondary iron minerals is of critical importance to develop a better understanding of the geochemical cycling of iron and in turn the transport of contaminants in the environment. This thesis investigated (1) the impact of simulated diagenesis (ageing for ~5 years at 4ºC) on the mineral stability and reactivity of BIOS towards reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, (2) the effects of phosphate at an environmentally relevant (10µM) and excess (3.9mM) concentration on the rates and extent of microbial reduction of synthetic 2-line ferrihydrite and BIOS, as well as the formation of secondary iron minerals, and (3) the impact of sterilization by γ-irradiation on the mineral stability and reactivity of BIOS. It was found that simulated diagenesis did not affect the mineralogical composition of BIOS but significantly lowered the reactivity of BIOS towards microbial reduction. The concentration of phosphate was found to have contrasting effects on the rates of reduction of ferrihydrite and BIOS, but in general, excess concentration of phosphate enhanced the extent of Fe(III) reduction. The formation of a specific secondary iron mineral was also found to depend on the concentration of phosphate, as well as, in the case for BIOS, the presence of intermixed cell derived organic matter. γ-irradiation did not alter the mineralogy and reactivity of BIOS towards microbial reduction, and it was concluded to be a suitable technique to sterilize BIOS.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/35683
http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-640
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
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