Elucidating the Important Structural Features of Aryl Glycosides and Antifreeze Glycoprotein Disaccharide Analogs for Ice Recrystallization Inhibition

Title: Elucidating the Important Structural Features of Aryl Glycosides and Antifreeze Glycoprotein Disaccharide Analogs for Ice Recrystallization Inhibition
Authors: Musca, Vanessa
Date: 2017
Abstract: Cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) extends the storage time from 42 days (hypothermic storage limit) to a maximum of 10 years. While this reduces the possibility of RBC shortages in emergency situations, this preservation method is currently limited to individuals with rare blood phenotypes, patients who require autologous blood transfusions, and military applications. Furthermore, cryopreservation is associated with a high degree of cellular damage, which can subsequently reduce the viability of cells post-thaw. The cellular damage incurred upon cryopreservation is primarily attributed to the process of ice recrystallization. To reduce the degree of cellular damage, cryoprotective agents (CPAs) are used. Currently, 10 % dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and 40 % glycerol are used for the cryopreservation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and human RBCs respectively. Unfortunately, these CPAs do not provide protection against ice recrystallization. The biological antifreezes (BAs) consisting of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) were identified as the first inhibitors of ice recrystallization. Consequently, the Ben laboratory is interested in synthesizing small molecule carbohydrate-based inhibitors of ice recrystallization that can be used as an alternative to glycerol or DMSO for the cryopreservation of various cell types. Therefore, this thesis focuses on elucidating important structural features of carbohydrate-based derivatives that are responsible for IRI activity. The first part of this study examines the importance of the anomeric oxygen atom of aryl glycosides for IRI activity. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that the O-linked aryl glycosides are effective inhibitors of ice recrystallization. However, the influence of stereoelectronic effects at the C1 position of aryl glycosides on IRI activity has not been investigated. As a result, N- and S-linked aryl glycosides were synthesized in this study and their IRI activities were compared to that of the O-linked aryl glycosides. These results suggest that a stronger exo-anomeric effect exhibited by the C1 nitrogen derivatives reduces the IRI activity of aryl glycosides. The second part of this study focuses on the synthesis of AFGP disaccharide analogs. While the β-(1,3) glycosidic linkage found in native AFGP-8 was previously assessed for its influence on IRI activity, an extensive structure-function analysis of AFGP disaccharide analogs has not yet been performed. As a result, an AFGP disaccharide analog was designed whereby a para-methoxyphenyl (PMP) substituent was incorporated. This was done to assess whether the PMP substituent could enhance the lack of IRI activity exhibited previously with AFGP disaccharide analogs. Although the synthesis of this disaccharide target was not completed, a number of advantageous developments have been made regarding the glycosylation of N-acetyl-D-glycosamine derivatives. In addition, the PMP-GlcNAc intermediate encountered in disaccharide synthesis was assessed for its IRI activity, confirming that the acetamido (NHAc) function is not required for IRI activity.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/35653
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -