Bacterial Contamination of Platelet Concentrates: Role of Biofilm Formation and Manufacturing Process

Title: Bacterial Contamination of Platelet Concentrates: Role of Biofilm Formation and Manufacturing Process
Authors: Taha, Mariam
Date: 2016
Abstract: Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) poses the highest transfusion-associated infectious risk with skin flora, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus capitis, being the predominant contaminants. These bacteria are able to form surface-attached aggregates or biofilms, which are present in the skin of healthy blood donors and can subsequently be isolated from contaminated PCs. Disinfection of the venipuncture area before donation with a combination of 2% chlorhexidine-gluconate and 70% isopropanol is used at Canadian Blood Services. However, not all bacteria are eliminated during skin disinfection since contaminated PCs are still captured during routine PC screening. In this thesis, the ability of biofilm-forming S. epidermidis and S. capitis to resist the currently used disinfectants was explored. It was demonstrated that although a combination of chlorhexidine and isopropanol has a bactericidal effect, it is unable to completely eradicate skin flora biofilms. Several countries have implemented Pathogen Inactivation Technologies (PITs) as a measure to help control transfusing bacterially-contaminated PCs by exposing PC units to ultra violet light. However, no investigations have been done to evaluate the ability of PITs against bacterial biofilms, which was one of the objectives of this thesis. Data revealed that the efficacy of a currently used PIT, the Mirasol® system, is similar for S. epidermidis present in PCs produced from whole blood inoculated with biofilm or non-biofilm cells. However, treatment effectiveness was strain dependent. In conclusion, further investigation to improve donor skin disinfection and PITs should be considered. Surveillance at Canadian Blood Services shows that contamination rates in single-donor apheresis PCs (Aph-PCs) is generally higher than in four-donor buffy coat platelet pools (BC-PCs). This study investigated whether the BC-PC production method contributes to this observation as BC-PCs are derived from WB that is left to rest overnight while Aph-PCs are collected directly from the donor. Data showed that WB hold during BC-PC production does not have a broad-spectrum bactericidal effect and therefore other factors contribute to low rates of contamination in BC-PCs. The work presented in this thesis provides an insight to bacterial residence and persistence during blood product manufacturing and makes suggestions for PC safety improvements.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -