ATRX Protects Cells Against Replication-Induced Genomic Instability

Title: ATRX Protects Cells Against Replication-Induced Genomic Instability
Authors: Ivanochko, Danton
Date: 2016
Abstract: Expansive proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is a prerequisite to the temporal waves of neuronal differentiation that generate the six-layered cerebral cortex. NPC expansion places a heavy burden on proteins that regulate chromatin packaging and genome integrity, which is further reflected by the growing number of developmental disorders caused by mutations in chromatin regulators. Accordingly, mutations in ATRX, a chromatin remodelling protein required for heterochromatin maintenance at telomeres and simple repeats, cause the ATR-X syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that proliferating ATRX-null cells accumulate DNA damage, while also exhibiting sensitivity to hydroxyurea-induced replication fork stalling. Specifically, PARP1 hyperactivation and replication-dependent double strand DNA breakage indicated replication fork protection defects, while DNA fiber assays confirmed that ATRX was required to protect replication forks from degradation. Interestingly, inhibition of the exonuclease MRE11 by the small molecule mirin could prevent degradation. Thus, ATRX is required to limit replication stress during NPC expansion.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -