Game Theoretic Load Management Schemes for Smart Grids

Title: Game Theoretic Load Management Schemes for Smart Grids
Authors: Yaagoubi, Naouar
Date: 2016
Abstract: To achieve a high level of reliability, efficiency, and robustness in electric systems, the concept of smart grid has been proposed. It is an update of the traditional electric grid designed to meet current and future customers' requirements. With the smart grid, demand management has been adopted in order to shape the load pattern of the consumers, maintain supply-demand balance, and reduce the total energy cost. In this thesis, we focus mainly on energy savings by critically investigating the problem of load management in the smart grid. We first propose a user aware demand management approach that manages residential loads while taking into consideration users' comfort. This latter is modeled in a simple yet effective way that considers waiting time, type of appliance, as well as a weight factor to prioritize comfort or savings. The proposed approach is based on game theory using a modified regret matching procedure. It provides users with high incentives to participate actively in load management and borrows advantages of both centralized and decentralized schemes. Then, we investigate the issue of fairness within demand response programs. The fair division of the system bill stemming from the use of shared microgrid resources with different costs is examined. The Shapley value provides one of the core solutions to fairness problems; however, it has been known to be computationally expensive for systems such as microgrids. Therefore, we incorporate an approximation of the Shapley value into a demand response algorithm to propose a fair billing mechanism based on the contribution of each user towards attaining the aggregated system cost. Finally, we study energy trading in the smart grid as an alternative way to reduce the load on the grid by efficiently using renewable energy resources. We propose a solution that takes into account the smart grid physical infrastructure, in addition to the distribution of its users. Different constraints stemming from the nature of the smart grid have been considered towards a realistic solution. We show through simulation results that all of the proposed schemes reduce the load on the grid, the energy bills, and the total system energy cost while maintaining the users' comfort as well as fairness.
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