Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Disease in Canada: The Role of Material, Psychosocial, and Behavioural Factors

Title: Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Disease in Canada: The Role of Material, Psychosocial, and Behavioural Factors
Authors: Rao, Deepa Prema
Date: 2016
Abstract: Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk condition describing a clustering of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A number of risk and protective factors have been associated with MetS, and individuals with MetS are at a higher risk for developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Objective: To contribute to the understanding of MetS in Canada, and to describe how it is a risk state through which material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associate with chronic diseases. This was examined through three objectives: (i) to describe the prevalence and distribution of MetS; (ii) to examine potential pathways linking income and education with MetS; and (iii) to examine the interplay between non-movement behaviours (NMBs, namely sleep, screen time, and sedentary behaviour) and MetS. Methods: The Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009, 2009-2011, ages 18 and older) was used for all analyses, which include logistic regression, multinomial regression, and calculation of standardized logit coefficients. Results: MetS was prevalent among approximately 20% of Canadian adults. It was significantly associated with chronic diseases, such as diabetes (11.2% vs. 3.4% among those with MetS vs. the general population). A social gradient in MetS was identified, and the behavioural risk factors of alcohol use, smoking, physical inactivity, and screen time were suggested to be partial mediators of this pathway. Findings demonstrated that not adhering to physical activity guidelines (150 minutes or more of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week) was associated with increased odds of MetS. A stepwise moderating effect of guideline adherence on screen time and sleep behaviours was demonstrated. Conclusion: MetS is prevalent in Canadian adults, and a high proportion of individuals with MetS have chronic conditions. Addressing the modifiable determinants of physical inactivity, excess screen time, alcohol consumption, and smoking may reduce the social gradient in MetS. Furthermore, adhering to physical activity guidelines may mitigate the associations of NMBs with MetS. The current thesis suggests that healthy behaviours are associated with lower risk for MetS, and therefore, possibly for future chronic disease.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -