Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Sensor Based on Phase-Sensitive Optical Time Domain Reflectometry

Title: Distributed Optical Fiber Vibration Sensor Based on Phase-Sensitive Optical Time Domain Reflectometry
Authors: Ren, Meiqi
Date: 2016
Abstract: In this thesis, the work focuses on developing distributed optical fiber vibration sensors based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR). Three works have been accomplished to improve the performances of Φ-OTDR for distributed vibration sensing. Firstly, Φ-OTDR based on a polarization diversity scheme is demonstrated to mitigate the polarization mismatch effect occurring in traditional systems. A theoretical analysis is performed in different polarization cases corresponding to coherent and polarization diversity detection. Φ-OTDR based polarization diversity shows a great potential in the multi-events sensing application. Two vibration events are simultaneously detected and their signal to noise ratios are improved by 10.9 dB and 8.65 dB, respectively, compared to the results obtained by a conventional coherent scheme. Intensity fluctuation in a phase-sensitive optical-time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) system caused by stochastic characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering has limited relative vibration strength measurement, which is proportional to dynamic strain. A trace-to-trace correlation coefficient is thus proposed to quantify the Φ-OTDR system stability and a novel approach of measuring the dynamic strain induced by various driving voltages of lead zicronate titanate (PZT) is demonstrated. Piezoelectric vibration signals are evaluated through analyzing peak values of the fast Fourier transform spectra at fundamental frequency and high-order harmonics based on Bessel functions. Experimental results show high correlation coefficients and good stability of our Φ-OTDR system, as well as the small measurement uncertainty of measured peak values. To reduce the intra-band noise caused by the finite extinction ratio of optical pulses, Φ-OTDR based on high extinction ratio generation is studied. Two methods are developed for achieving high extinction ratio of optical pulse generation. One of the approaches is to synchronize two cascaded electro-optic modulators to achieve high extinction ratio operation. The other one is to use the nonlinear optical fiber loop mirror as an optical switch to suppress the continuous wave portion of optical pulse. The sensing range of 1.8 km and 8.4 km with corresponding spatial resolution of 0.5 m and 2 m have been demonstrated based on cascaded two electro-optic modulators and nonlinear optical fiber loop mirror setup, respectively.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/34400
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -