Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Mitochondrial Quality Control

Title: Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Mitochondrial Quality Control
Authors: Ng, Cheuk-Him (Andy)
Date: 2015
Abstract: In addition to ATP generation, mitochondria are essential in various cellular processes ranging from biosynthetic pathways, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and calcium buffering. Studies in living cells have now firmly established that mitochondria exist as a dynamic network sculpted by fission and fusion reactions, rather than separated, individual organelles. Not surprisingly, mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control lead to human diseases such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A, Optic atrophy, and autosomal recessive Parkinson disease. I have designed a high-throughput protocol to permit genome-wide screening for novel genes that are required for normal mitochondrial morphology. I have executed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified several novel genes required for mitochondrial dynamics in addition to known regulators of mitochondrial dynamics. A detailed high-throughput genome-wide screening protocol is presented. I have shown that TID1, a gene identified from the screen, has a dual-role in maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial DNA and preventing the aggregation of complex I subunits. My analysis of the mitochondrial role of TID1 supports the existence of a TID1- mediated stress response to ATP synthase inhibition. The genome screen also identified the novel gene ROMO1 as essential for normal mitochondrial morphology. I have shown that ROMO1 may have an additional role in maintaining mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, possibly by affecting cellular substrate availability. Finally, in a collaborative effort, we have shown that homozygous mutations in the mitochondrial fusion gene MFN2 lead to multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) associated with neuropathy. Mechanistically, this mutation reduces MFN2 homocomplex formation. Taken together, these results show the utility of genome-wide screening in identifying genes involved in mitochondrial quality control.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -