Investigating and Enhancing Spin Reversal Barriers in Dinuclear 4f Single-Molecule Magnets and the Ultimate Shift to Mononuclear 3d Complexes

Title: Investigating and Enhancing Spin Reversal Barriers in Dinuclear 4f Single-Molecule Magnets and the Ultimate Shift to Mononuclear 3d Complexes
Authors: Habib, Fatemah
Date: 2015
Abstract: In order for molecular magnetic materials to become applicable, they must retain their magnetisation at reasonable temperatures, which can be achieved with high energy barriers for spin reversal and high blocking temperatures. In the field of Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs), over the last decade, the main focus has shifted from large spin complexes to highly anisotropic systems which have displayed record energy barriers. There are two main methods of increasing magnetic anisotropy in a complex: i) Choosing a metal ion that boasts high magnetic anisotropy then coupling two such ions through magnetic interactions to induce large global anisotropy, and ii) maintain a low spin or use a mononuclear complex while minimising quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation by controlling the geometric features of the metal ion. Both strategies are equally valid and have been explored in this thesis using dinuclear lanthanide as well as mononuclear 3d complexes. In the pursuit of high-barrier SMMs via alignment of anisotropy axes, two dinuclear, quadruple-stranded helicates and one mesocate were isolated and are described in detail herein, both structurally and magnetically. Furthermore, theoretical calculations have been performed to determine the energies of Kramers doublets on each DyIII centre to derive magneto-structural correlations. To induce magnetic interactions between DyIII ions, a centrosymmetric dinuclear SMM was synthesised. Investigation of the crucial DyIII…DyIII interaction as well as its effect on the quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation has been carried out using ab initio calculations and magnetic dilution studies. Using the same system, a method of greatly enhancing the energy barriers in SMMs has been developed. It involves modifying the coordinating ligands to include electron withdrawing groups in order to yield more anisotropic metal ions. The energy barrier for spin reversal has been increased 7-fold in one case. While lanthanide chemistry has proven to be quite versatile and promising, a new branch of nanomagnets is currently being pursued: mononuclear 3d complexes as SMMs. The advantages of 3d metals include high anisotropy per ion, low spin (as anisotropy decreases with increasing spin), well-understood electronic structures and clear correlations between geometry and magnetic anisotropy. The structural and magnetic properties of three complexes based on CoII and terpyridine ligands as well as a seven-coordinate CoII complex with positive anisotropy are discussed at length. The unique slow relaxation dynamics and spin crossover behaviour has been followed using DFT and ab initio calculations, as well as EPR and magnetic dilution studies. Overall, this thesis describes the efforts taken to synthesise high-barrier nanomagnets through understanding the origins and mechanisms of slow magnetic relaxation in both lanthanide and 3d metal complexes.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -