The Essential Role of the Crtc2-CREB Pathway in β Cell Function and Survival

Title: The Essential Role of the Crtc2-CREB Pathway in β Cell Function and Survival
Authors: Eberhard, Chandra
Date: 2013
Abstract: Immunosuppressants that target the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin are commonly administered following organ transplantation. Their chronic use is associated with reduced insulin secretion and new onset diabetes in a subset of patients, suggestive of pancreatic β cell dysfunction. Calcineurin plays a critical role in the activation of CREB, a key transcription factor required for β cell function and survival. CREB activity in the islet is activated by glucose and cAMP, in large part due to activation of Crtc2, a critical coactivator for CREB. Previous studies have demonstrated that Crtc2 activation is dependent on dephosphorylation regulated by calcineurin. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of calcineurin-inhibiting immunosuppressants on Crtc2-CREB activation in the primary β cell. In addition, we further characterized the role and regulation of Crtc2 in the β cell. We demonstrate that Crtc2 is required for glucose dependent up-regulation of CREB target genes. The phosphatase calcineurin and kinase regulation by LKB1 contribute to the phosphorylation status of Crtc2 in the β cell. CsA and FK506 block glucose-dependent dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Crtc2. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Crtc2 that cannot be phosphorylated at Ser171 and Ser275 enables CREB activity under conditions of calcineurin inhibition. Furthermore, β cells lacking Crtc2 display impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and cell survival. Together, these results demonstrate that phosphorylation of Crtc2 plays a critical role in regulating CREB activity and contributes to β cell dysfunction and death caused by chronic immunosuppression.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -