Alkyne-Nitrone Cycloadditions for Functionalizing Cell Surface Proteins

Title: Alkyne-Nitrone Cycloadditions for Functionalizing Cell Surface Proteins
Authors: McKay, Craig
Date: 2012
Abstract: Over the past decade, bioorthogonal chemistry has emerged as powerful tools used for tracking biomolecules within living systems. Despite the vast number of organic transformations in the literature, only select few reactions meet the stringent requirements of bioorthogonality. There is increasing demands to develop biocompatible reactions that display high specificity and exquisitely fast kinetics under physiological conditions. With the goal of increasing reaction rates as a means for reducing the concentrations of labelling reagents used for bioconjugation, we have developed metal-catalyzed and metal-free alkyne-nitrone cycloadditions as alternatives to azide-alkyne cycloadditions and demonstrate their applications for imaging cell surface proteins. The copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-nitrone cycloaddition, also known as the Kinugasa reaction, is typically conducted with a Cu(I) catalyst in the absence of air. We have developed highly efficient micelle promoted multicomponent Kinugasa reactions in aqueous media to make the reaction faster and more efficient. Despite good product yields, the slow kinetics, limited substrate scope and competing side-reaction pathways precludes its practical applicability for biological labelling. We have designed and synthesized β-lactam alkyne probes obtained from these reactions for activity-based protein profiling of the activities of membrane proteins. Additionally, we report that alkyne tethered β-lactams serve as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) reporters bound to silver nanoparticles, and demonstrated that alkyne bound silver nanoparticles can be used for SERS imaging cell surface proteins. The strain-promoted alkyne-nitrone cycloaddition (SPANC) was also explored as a rapid alternative bioorthogonal reaction. We found that the reaction proceeded in high yield within aqueous media, and displayed rate enhancements that were 1-2 orders of magnitude faster than analogous reactions involving azides. The scope and kinetics of SPANC was evaluated in model reactions of various nitrones (acyclic and cyclic) with cyclooctynes, with the purpose of identifying stable nitrones that displayed intrinsically faster kinetics than azides in strain-promoted cycloadditions with cyclooctynes. Cyclic nitrones displayed good stability and exceptionally fast reactivity in these reactions. The SPANC reaction exhibited high selectivity in the presence of biological nucleophilic amino acid side chains and the presence of biological media did not adversely affect the reaction. We have utilized SPANC for highly specific labelling of proteins in vitro and for imaging ligand-receptor interactions on the surfaces of live cancer cells. The high selectivity, fast reaction rate, and aqueous compatibility of SPANC makes the reaction suitable for a variety of in vivo biological imaging applications.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -