Part A: Rhodium-catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles / Part B: Mechanistic Studies on Tethering Organocatalysis Applied to Cope-type Alkene Hydroamination

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Title: Part A: Rhodium-catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles / Part B: Mechanistic Studies on Tethering Organocatalysis Applied to Cope-type Alkene Hydroamination
Authors: Guimond, Nicolas
Date: 2012
Abstract: The last decade has been marked by a large increase of demand for green chemistry processes. Consequently, chemists have focused their efforts on the development of more direct routes toward different classes of targets. In that regard catalysis has played a crucial role at enabling key bond formations that were otherwise inaccessible or very energy and resources consuming. The central theme of this body of work concerns the formation of C–N bonds, either through transition metal catalysis or organocatalysis. These structural units being highly recurrent in biologically active molecules, the establishment of more efficient routes for their construction is indispensable. The first part of this thesis describes a new method for the synthesis of isoquinolines from the oxidative coupling/annulation of alkynes with N-tert-butyl benzaldimines via Rh(III) catalysis (Chapter 2). Preliminary mechanistic investigations of this system pointed to the involvement of Rh(III) in the C–H bond cleavage step as well as in the C–N bond reductive elimination that provides the desired heterocycle. Following this oxidative process, a Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral approach to isoquinolones from the reaction of benzhydroxamic acids with alkynes is presented (Chapter 3). The discovery that an N–O bond contained in the substrate can act as an internal oxidant was found to be very enabling. Indeed, it allowed for milder reaction conditions, broader scope (terminal alkyne and alkene compatible) and low catalyst loadings (0.5 mol%). Mechanistic investigations on this system were also conducted to identify the nature of the C–N bond formation/N–O bond cleavage as well as the rate-determining step. The second part of this work presents mechanistic investigations performed on a recently developed intermolecular hydroamination reaction catalyzed through tethering organocatalysis (Chapter 4). This transformation operates via the reversible covalent attachment of two reactants, a hydroxylamine and an allylamine, to an aldehyde catalyst by the formation of a mixed aminal. This allows a difficult intermolecular Cope-type hydroamination to be performed intramolecularly. The main kinetic parameters associated with this reaction were determined and they allowed the generation of a more accurate catalytic cycle for this transformation. Attempts at developing new families of organocatalysts are also discussed.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/23222
http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-5968
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
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