Quantum Circuit Based on Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

Title: Quantum Circuit Based on Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Authors: Hsieh, Chang-Yu
Date: 2012
Abstract: In this thesis, I present a microscopic theory of quantum circuits based on interacting electron spins in quantum dot molecules. We use the Linear Combination of Harmonic Orbitals-Configuration Interaction (LCHO-CI) formalism for microscopic calculations. We then derive effective Hubbard, t-J, and Heisenberg models. These models are used to predict the electronic, spin and transport properties of a triple quantum dot molecule (TQDM) as a function of topology, gate configuration, bias and magnetic field. With these theoretical tools and fully characterized TQDMs, we propose the following applications: 1. Voltage tunable qubit encoded in the chiral states of a half-filled TQDM. We show how to perform single qubit operations by pulsing voltages. We propose the "chirality-to-charge" conversion as the measurement scheme and demonstrate the robustness of the chirality-encoded qubit due to charge fluctuations. We derive an effective qubit-qubit Hamiltonian and demonstrate the two-qubit gate. This provides all the necessary operations for a quantum computer built with chirality-encoded qubits. 2. Berry's phase. We explore the prospect of geometric quantum computing with chirality-encoded qubit. We construct a Herzberg circuit in the voltage space and show the accumulation of Berry's phase. 3. Macroscopic quantum states on a semiconductor chip. We consider a linear chain of TQDMs, each with 4 electrons, obtained by nanostructuring a metallic gate in a field effect transistor. We theoretically show that the low energy spectrum of the chain maps onto that of a spin-1 chain. Hence, we show that macroscopic quantum states, protected by a Haldane gap from the continuum, emerge. In order to minimize decoherence of electron spin qubits, we consider using electron spins in the p orbitals of the valence band (valence holes) as qubits. We develop a theory of valence hole qubit within the 4-band k.p model. We show that static magnetic fields can be used to perform single qubit operations. We also show that the qubit-qubit interactions are sensitive to the geometry of a quantum dot network. For vertical qubit arrays, we predict that there exists an optimal qubit separation suitable for the voltage control of qubit-qubit interactions.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/20738
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -