Transcriptional Control of Metabolism and the Response to Ischemia in Muscle

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Title: Transcriptional Control of Metabolism and the Response to Ischemia in Muscle
Authors: Teng, Allen C. T.
Date: 2011
Abstract: Skeletal muscle is one of the largest tissues in humans and provides many pivotal functions to support life. Abnormality in skeletal muscle functions can lead to disease. For example, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle leads to type II diabetes. The underlying mechanisms that control energy balance in skeletal muscle remain largely elusive, especially at the genetic level. Here in the second chapter, I showed that MyoD mediated the transcriptional regulation of ACSL5, a mitochondrial protein, in C2C12 myoblasts via two E-box elements. A SNP rs2419621 (T) created a de novo E-box that together with the two pre-existing proximal E-boxes strongly enhances ACSL5 expression in both CV1 and C2C12 cells. In the third chapter, I identified a novel VGLL4-interacting protein IRF2BP2 and verified the interaction with co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays. Functionally, overexpression of IRF2BP2 and transcription factor TEAD1 activates mouse VEGF-A promoter in CV1 cells and enhances the biosynthesis of VEGF-A in C2C12 myoblasts. In vivo studies showed that ischemia induced the expression of IRF2BP2 by more than three fold, suggesting that IRF2BP2 could play a pivotal role during tissue ischemia. IRF2BP2 is a nuclear protein in both mouse cardiac myocytes and C2C12 myoblasts as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Therefore, I sought to delineate the mechanism for the nuclear shuttling of IRF2BP2 in the fourth chapter. With various DNA alternations, I mapped the NLS to an evolutionarily conserved sequence 354ARKRKPSP361 in IRF2BP2. Deletion of the positively charged amino acids resulted in the abolishment of the NLS signal. Next, I showed that phosphorylation of serine 360 (S360) mediates the nuclear import of the protein. Whereas an alanine substitution (S360A) at the site resulted in perinuclear accumulation of the protein, an aspartic acid substitution (S360D) forced the nuclear accumulation. Nevertheless, the forced accumulation of the S360D mutant did not enhance the activation of VEGF-A promoter in CV1 cells as did the wild-type protein. My studies revealed two novel mechanisms by which skeletal muscle could harvest energy, thus providing new insight into the energy metabolism in skeletal muscle
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/20479
http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-5091
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
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