Towards in vitro Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Novel Targeted Covalent Inhibitors for Human Tissue Transglutaminase

Title: Towards in vitro Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Novel Targeted Covalent Inhibitors for Human Tissue Transglutaminase
Authors: Bourgeois, Karine
Date: 2019-07-25
Abstract: Human tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a calcium-dependent multifunctional enzyme that natively catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins, namely by the formation of isopeptide bonds between protein- or peptide-bound glutamine and lysine residues. This ubiquitously expressed enzyme plays important roles in cellular differentiation, extracellular matrix stabilization, and apoptosis, to name a few. However, its unregulated activity has been associated with many pathologies such as fibrosis, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and celiac disease. Most of these disorders are associated with unregulated acyl-transferase activity. As such, the Keillor group has directed its efforts towards the development of TG2 inhibitors. Over the years, the Keillor group has synthesized large libraries of targeted covalent inhibitors against TG2. These compounds have undergone pharmacodynamic testing in order to examine their kinetic parameters of inhibition. Having gained knowledge of their enzyme kinetics, the logical next step was to consider their pharmacokinetic profiles. In the context of this thesis, we considered two important pharmacokinetic properties: membrane permeability and off-target reactivity. Firstly, we aimed to evaluate our inhibitors for their ability to permeate the cell membrane. In efforts to do so, we were able to adapt, optimize, and validate a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) utilizing hexadecane as our artificial membrane. We were able to test a few of our own inhibitors and found that compounds NC9, VA4 and AA9 possess Log Pe values of -5.26 ± 0.01, -4.66 ± 0.04 and -6.5 ± 0.5 respectively. Secondly, we sought to investigate the susceptibility of our inhibitors to glutathione addition reactions under physiological conditions. We adapted and optimized a colorimetric assay using Ellman’s reagent (DTNB) and found that our inhibitors are minimally reactive with glutathione. The methods developed over the course of this work provide protocols that can be adopted for the characterization of future inhibitors in the Keillor group, along the process of developing TG2 inhibitors into drug candidates.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -