Conjugated Linoleic Acid/Styrene/Butyl Acrylate Bulk and Emulsion Polymerization

Title: Conjugated Linoleic Acid/Styrene/Butyl Acrylate Bulk and Emulsion Polymerization
Authors: Roberge, Stéphane
Date: 2016
Abstract: The potential for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) incorporation into pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) formulations was evaluated. A series of free radical bulk copolymerizations of CLA/styrene (Sty) and CLA/butyl acrylate (BA) were designed to allow the estimation of reactivity ratios. Bulk terpolymerizations of CLA/Sty/BA were also evaluated before moving to emulsion terpolymerizations of CLA/Sty/BA. The polymers were characterized for composition, conversion, molecular weight and glass transition temperature while latexes were characterized for viscosity, particle size, tack, peel strength, and shear strength. All experiments were performed at 80oC and monitored with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. While bulk experiments were monitored off-line, the emulsion experiments were monitored in-line. Absorbance peaks related to the monomers and polymer were tracked to provide conversion and polymer composition data using a multivariate calibration method. Off-line measurements using gravimetry and 1H-NMR spectroscopy were compared to the ATR-FTIR data and no significant differences were detected between the measurement methods. Pseudo-kinetic models, developed and validated with the copolymer experimental data, were used to estimate reactivity ratios. The copolymer pseudo-kinetic models were extended to a terpolymer pseudo-kinetic model and validated with experimental data. The pseudo-kinetic models incorporated the ability of oleic acid, a common impurity found in CLA, to trap electrons thus influencing the reaction kinetics significantly. The influence of terpolymer composition, chain transfer agent concentration, cross-linker concentration, molecular weight, viscosity and particle size on tack, peel strength and shear strength was investigated by using a constrained mixture design. The final forms of the resulting empirical models allowed the creation of 3D response surfaces for PSA performance optimization. The incorporation of 30 wt.% CLA into a practical PSA application suitable for the removable adhesives category was achieved.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -