The Role of CD80 and CD86 In Macrophage Activation and its Regulation Following LPS Stimulation

Title: The Role of CD80 and CD86 In Macrophage Activation and its Regulation Following LPS Stimulation
Authors: Woldai, Seghen
Date: 2014
Abstract: The binding of CD80/CD86 on the APC to CD28 on the T cell surface provides a second signal for T cell activation. While it was once believed that this interaction represented a one-way signal, resulting in T cell activation, recently, it has been investigated as a bidirectional signaling process. CD80/86 activation produces IL-6 in DCs, but its role in macrophage activation is unknown. Dysregulation of CD80/86 expression has been observed in autoimmune disorders and cancer, and may also influence the development of immune responses including production of cytokines in response to stimulation with TLR-4 ligand, LPS. Therefore, the focus of my project was twofold: 1) to investigate the role of CD80/86 as signaling receptors capable of transmitting extracellular signals, and 2) to determine the TLR-4 activated pathways that regulate CD80/86 expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Since I demonstrated that activation of CD80/86 alone did not induce expression of the four cytokines investigated, I hypothesized that CD80/86 synergizes with other signaling pathways. I show for the first time that CD80/86 activation synergizes with TLR-4 signaling to produce IL-27 and IL-10 in human MDMs. Since cIAPs play a key role in TLR-4-mediated signaling, I investigated their role in TLR-4- and CD80/86-activated production of IL-10 and IL-27. Degradation of IAPs by SMAC mimetics inhibited LPS-induced IL-10 and IL-27 production in MDMs. However, it did not alter the TLR-4 and CD80/86 synergistic effect on IL-10 and IL-27 production suggesting that IAPs may not play a role in CD80/86 activation of macrophages. Since I have demonstrated this role for IAPs, I extended my studies by examining the involvement of IAPs and other upstream signaling molecules such as SHP-1, RIP1, TRAF2, in modulating the LPS-induced CD80/86 expression. I showed that cIAP2, SHP-1, RIP1, TRAF2 co-localize to form a complex that regulates the LPS-induced CD80 and CD86 expression through AKT-activated p38 MAPK in human macrophages. These findings may lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -