Biodistribution of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles administered during acute lung injury

Title: Biodistribution of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles administered during acute lung injury
Authors: Tieu, Alvin
Stewart, Duncan J.
Chwastek, Damian
Lansdell, Casey
Burger, Dylan
Lalu, Manoj M.
Date: 2023-09-13
Abstract: Abstract Background Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) are a promising cell-free therapy for acute lung injury (ALI). To date, no studies have investigated their biodistribution in ALI or discerned the timing of administration for maximal lung targeting, which are crucial considerations for clinical translation. Our study aimed to characterize a mouse model of ALI and establish the distribution kinetics and optimal timing of MSC-EV delivery during lung injury. Methods MSC-EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation alone (U/C) or tangential flow filtration with ultracentrifugation (TFF-U/C) and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model of ALI was established to study the inflammatory response over 72 h. ALI was assessed by histological lung injury score, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell count and inflammatory cytokines. For biodistribution studies, ALI mice were intravenously administered fluorescently labeled MSC-EVs to determine the optimal timing of administration and organ-specific biodistribution. Live in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging was conducted at various timepoints post-EV injection. Results EVs isolated by either ultracentrifugation alone or TFF-U/C displayed comparable size distribution (~ 50–350 nm) and EV marker expression (CD63/81). TFF-U/C generated a 5.4-fold higher particle concentration and 3.9-fold higher total protein when compared to ultracentrifugation alone. From the inflammatory time-course study, cell count and IL-1β peaked in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 24 h after ALI induction. MSC-EVs delivered at 24 h (as opposed to 0.5 h, 5 h or 10 h) after disease induction resulted in a 2.7–4.4-fold higher lung uptake of EVs. Biodistribution studies comparing organ-specific MSC-EV uptake showed progressive lung accumulation up to 48 h post-delivery (threefold higher than the spleen/liver), with a decline at 72 h. Importantly, lung EV fluorescence at 48 h in ALI mice was significantly elevated as compared to control mice. The lung tropism of MSC-EVs was further validated as therapeutically inert EVs derived from HEK293T cells accumulated mainly to the spleen and liver with a 5.5-fold lower distribution to the lungs as compared to MSC-EVs. Conclusion MSC-EVs exhibit maximal lung accumulation when administered during heightened inflammation at 24 h after ALI induction. This lung tropism suggests that MSC-EVs may serve as a practical rescue treatment for acute inflammatory respiratory conditions.
CollectionPublications par les auteurs d'uOttawa publiés par BioMed Central // uOttawa authored publications from BioMed Central