Dating the Common Ancestor from an NCBI Tree of 83688 High-Quality and Full-Length SARS-CoV-2 Genomes

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Title: Dating the Common Ancestor from an NCBI Tree of 83688 High-Quality and Full-Length SARS-CoV-2 Genomes
Authors: Xia, Xuhua
Date: 2021
Abstract: All dating studies involving SARS-CoV-2 are problematic. Previous studies have dated the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) between SARS-CoV-2 and its close relatives from bats and pangolins. However, the evolutionary rate thus derived is expected to differ from the rate estimated from sequence divergence of SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Here, I present dating results for the first time from a large phylogenetic tree with 86,582 high-quality full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes. The tree contains 83,688 genomes with full specification of collection time. Such a large tree spanning a period of about 1.5 years offers an excellent opportunity for dating the MRCA of the sampled SARS-CoV-2 genomes. The MRCA is dated 16 August 2019, with the evolutionary rate estimated to be 0.05526 mutations/genome/day. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between the root-to-tip distance (D) and the collection time (T) is 0.86295. The NCBI tree also includes 10 SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from cats, collected over roughly the same time span as human COVID-19 infection. The MRCA from these cat-derived SARS-CoV-2 is dated 30 July 2019, with r = 0.98464. While the dating method is well known, I have included detailed illustrations so that anyone can repeat the analysis and obtain the same dating results. With 16 August 2019 as the date of the MRCA of sampled SARS-CoV-2 genomes, archived samples from respiratory or digestive tracts collected around or before 16 August 2019, or those that are not descendants of the existing SARS-CoV-2 lineages, should be particularly valuable for tracing the origin of SARS-CoV-2.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/43074
DOI: 10.3390/v13091790
CollectionBiologie // Biology
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