Effect of Electrochemical Promotion and Metal-Support Interaction on Catalytic Performance of Nano-catalysts

Title: Effect of Electrochemical Promotion and Metal-Support Interaction on Catalytic Performance of Nano-catalysts
Authors: Hajar, Yasmine
Date: 2019-10-08
Embargo: 2020-04-08
Abstract: In heterogeneous catalysis, promoting the activity of the catalytic metals is long known as an important method to make a process more efficient and viable. Noble metals have been promoted classically by a chemical coverage of an ionic solution on the surface of the catalyst or using inert support, e.g., silica or alumina, allowing an increase of the dispersion of the catalyst. Therefore, new methods of promotion needed to be better explored to improve the efficiency of metal and metal oxide catalysts. One way of enhancing the catalyst’s activity is to disperse the noble metal at the nanoscale using an active type of support that is ion-conducting. Not only lattice ions can be exchanged with the surface of the nanoparticles but it can also engage in the oxidation reaction on the surface, resulting in what is known as metal-support interaction (MSI). Another method of improving the catalytic activity is to polarize the catalyst, allowing ions to migrate from a solid electrolyte to the gas-exposed surface, in a phenomenon known as electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC). The change in the ions concentration on the surface would change the adsorption energy of the gaseous reactants and enhance or supress the catalytic rate. In this thesis, the effect of supporting nanoparticles of noble and non-noble metal (oxides) (Pt, Ru, Ir, Ni) was studied for the case of ionic and ionic-electronic conducting supports (CeO2, TiO2, YSZ). The enhancement in their catalytic rate was found and correlated to an electrochemical property, the exchange current density. Then, using isotopically-labeled oxygen, the oxygen exchange ability of the conductive oxides was evaluated when supporting Ir and Ru nanoparticles and correlated with the results from C3H8 isotopic oxidation reaction, which showed the extent of involvement of oxygen from the support as carried by the isotopically-labeled CO2 produced. Following this, electrochemical promotion of catalysis experiments were performed for different reactant/catalyst systems (C2H4 - Pt, Ru; C3H8 - Pt; CH4 - Pd, Ni9Pd). In the first system, the main outcome was the functional equivalence found for the MSI and EPOC effect in promoting the catalysts as experiments were performed at different temperatures, reactants partial pressures and polarization values. In the case of C3H8/Pt, the novel dispersion of Pt on an intermediate supporting layer (LSM/GDC) was found as a feasible method to obtain long stability of the catalyst while electrochemically promoting the rate of reaction. For CH4 oxidation, the polarization of the Pd nanoparticles showed continuous oxidation of the bulk of the catalyst resulting in a continuous increase of the catalytic rate. The Ni9Pd synthesized in a way to form a core/double-shell layer of Ni/Pd resulted in an enhanced catalytic rate and enhanced stability compared to stand-alone Pd. And lastly, to comprehend the ions’ effect in the electrochemical promotion and the non-Faradaic nature of the phenomena, density-functional theory (DFT) modeling was used to demonstrate the increase of the heat of adsorption of reactants depending on their electronegative/positive nature.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/39701
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -