Glutamatergic Regulation of Adult Goldfish Radial Glial Cells Via Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

Description
Title: Glutamatergic Regulation of Adult Goldfish Radial Glial Cells Via Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors
Authors: Sacchi, Federico
Date: 2018-12-05
Abstract: Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens. In teleosts, brain aromatase, also known as aromatase B (cy19a1b), is only expressed in radial glial cells (RGCs). This is in contrast to aromatase A, which is expressed in gonads. Estrogens such as estradiol (E2) modulate neurogenesis in the adult teleost brain. Recent studies show that E2 also differentially regulates aromatase B expression in goldfish RGCs. As a result, teleost RGCs are suggested to be involved in regulating neurogenesis. In addition, aromatase B expression in goldfish RGC is under the control of dopamine suggesting that neurons and neurotransmitters can regulate RGC function. Interestingly, goldfish RGC transcriptome data shows the expression of one group of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), group III mGluRs, which suggests that glutamate may affect RGC function. In this thesis, I present my findings regarding potential glutamatergic regulation of RGCs. Firstly, I investigated the distribution of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles and RGCs in the female goldfish forebrain. Double-staining immunohistochemistry shows that vesicular glutamate transporter (vGLUT) 1/2-labelled glutamatergic synaptic vesicles are in close anatomical proximity to aromatase B-labelled RGCs, which suggests potential regulation of RGCs by glutamate. Glutamatergic regulation of cyp19a1b, cyclin D1 (ccnd1), cyclin A2 (ccna2), mGluR6b (grm6b), mGluR7 (grm7), and mGluR8b (grm8b) expression in cultured adult female goldfish RGCs was also examined. Results from pharmacological manipulations and qPCR data analysis show that selective activation of group III mGluRs decreased cyp19a1b, ccnd1, and ccna2 mRNA via inhibition of cAMP/PKA signalling. Furthermore, grm7 mRNA is positively regulated by cAMP-dependent signalling. The glutamate analog L-glutamic acid decreased cyp19a1b mRNA and increased ccnd1 and grm6b mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that ccnd1 and grm6b expression may be regulated by glutamate receptors other than group III mGluRs, for example, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which are expressed in cultured goldfish RGCs. It was found that E2 upregulated cyp19a1b, ccnd1 and grm7 mRNA. However, selective activation of group III mGluRs decreases the stimulatory effect of E2 on ccnd1 expression. My findings show that glutamate finely regulates RGC neurogenic and steroidogenic genes, which may implicate glutamate in the regulation of RGC differentiation, RGC proliferation, and neurogenesis in surrounding cells.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/38535
http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-22788
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
Files