Molecular and Clinical Delineation of Rare Disorders of Stature

Title: Molecular and Clinical Delineation of Rare Disorders of Stature
Authors: Hood, Rebecca
Date: 2017
Abstract: There are more than 7000 described rare genetic disorders; however, the molecular basis underlying approximately half of these disorders is unknown, and the majority are currently untreatable. Stature and growth abnormalities are a common clinical feature of many rare disorders including: Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS), a short stature syndrome characterized by delayed osseous maturation, language deficits, and unique dysmorphic facial features; Weaver syndrome, an overgrowth syndrome characterized by advanced osseous maturation, developmental delay, and macrocephaly; and Sotos syndrome with cutis laxa, an overgrowth syndrome with marked tissue laxity in addition to the typical Sotos characteristics of developmental delay, macrocephaly, and a unique facial gestalt. The genetic basis underlying these three rare stature conditions were unknown at the outset of this study. We utilized high-throughput exome sequencing approaches to investigate the molecular etiology of these rare disorders and identified truncating mutations in the final exon of SRCAP as the genetic cause underlying FHS, missense mutations in EZH2 in Weaver syndrome, and novel mutations in the Sotos syndrome gene NSD1 in Sotos syndrome with cutis laxa. Next, we investigated the spectrum of SRCAP mutations in FHS and established the clustering of truncating SRCAP mutations in the final exon as being highly suggestive of a non-haploinsufficiency mutational mechanism in FHS. Finally, global methylation array analysis identified a unique methylation ‘epi-signature’ in FHS individuals, providing further insight into FHS disease mechanism and a diagnostic signature. These studies have delineated the molecular etiology of these three rare stature/growth disorders, furthered our understanding of the associated clinical spectrum, and provided biological insight into disease pathogenesis.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -