Influence of Dynamic Ice Cover on River Hydraulics and Sediment Transport

dc.contributor.authorGhareh Aghaji Zare, Soheil
dc.description.abstractIce regime plays a significant role in River hydraulics and morphology in Northern hemisphere countries such as Canada. The formation, propagation and recession of ice cover introduce a dynamic boundary layer to the top of the stream. Ice cover affects the water velocity magnitude and distribution, water level and consequently conveyance capacity. A stable ice cover also tends to reduce bed shear and associated sediment transport, but bank scour and ice jamming events can increase sediment entrainment. These effects are even more intense during the ice cover break-up period when extreme conditions such as ice-jamming and release and mechanical ice cover break-up can locally accelerate the flow, and ice can mechanically scour the river bed and banks. The presence of ice has some important implications for hydro-electrical power generation operations too. The ice cover changes the channel conveyance capacity (and therefore increases the flood risk), may increase sediment transport and causes scouring, and is likely to block water intakes and turbines. The rate of water release should, therefore, be adjusted in the presence of the ice cover to avoid unwanted consequences on the dam structure and equipments as well as on the downstream channel and the environment. Even though the influence of ice cover on rivers is widely recognized, large gaps still exist in our understanding of ice cover processes in rivers. Two main reasons for such a shortage are the difficulty and danger involved in collecting hydraulic and sediment transport data under ice cover, especially during the unstable periods of freeze-up and break-up. In the absence of sufficient data, the applicability of available formulae and theories on hydraulic processes in ice-covered rivers cannot be extensively tested and improved. The purpose of this research mainly is a) to perform a continuous, in-situ monitoring of water velocity profiles, sediment loads and ice-cover condition during several years through winter field campaigns at a section of the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada.The Lower Nelson River is a regulated river (Manitoba Hydro). It receives augmented flow from the Churchill River Diversion, and is subject to operation of many hydro-electricity facilities, one of which is currently under construction, while others are planned to be constructed in the future. Due to the geographical location of the study reach, it is covered by ice and experiences severe ice condition for several months during the year. b) Analysis of the collected data in order to study the impact of ice cover on the hydraulic properties and sediment conveyance capacity at the study reach and c) using the insight gained from the field data analysis to improve a river ice simulation model to apply in the study of Lower Nelson River ice regime. The selection of the Lower Nelson river is motivated by intention of Manitoba Hydro (MH) ,as the industrial partner in this research, to study the winter flow regime at the Lower Nelson River. Manitoba Hydro operates several dams on the Lower Nelson River and is considering more hydropower developments in the future. This study is composed of six steps as are described in the following main steps. Step 1: Selection of potential study sites and data collection techniques: The particular study site for this research is located immediately upstream of Jackfish Island, between Limestone generating station and Gillam Island in Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. River width at the study site location is about 1km. Water depth at the deployment site varies between 10-12 meters depending on both the time of year and the time of day due to hydropeaking fluctuations. Given the low accessibility to the field during winter time and considering the type of the required data, acoustic techniques were selected as the main approach for the field measurements. Two types of acoustic instruments, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and Shallow Water Ice Profiling Sonar (SWIPS) are selected for field investigations in this study. Both of them were planned to be deployed in the river for an extended period of time in order to record necessary data during the ice cover and open water periods. Step 2: Data acquisition. After the site selection and defining the appropriate techniques, data acquisition has been started through a series of annual field measurement campaigns starting from winter 2012. Measured data mainly consist of water velocity and sediment suspension during various ice cover stages, including river ice break-up. The velocity profiles are analyzed to determine dynamic changes in boundary shear stress and hydraulic resistance and stresses in the flow during the both open water and ice cover periods. Step 3: Data analysis and development/testing of roughness and sediment transport formulas. Several aspects of river-ice interactions are covered in the recorded data including ice cover condition and cover thickness variation, river hydraulic characteristics such as depth and velocity and finally information about the concentration of suspended particles. These data are analyzed to define the behavior of the ice cover and river during different ice stages. Ice effect on river conveyance capacity is also evaluated . The accuracy of common assumptions in composite roughness calculations in rivers is estimated and a new approach is developed and validated using the field observations and measurements. Ice cover influence on suspended sediment concentration is also studied as the other part of this research. Considering the type of the river sediment load (mostly bed load) available methods for sediment transport simulation are studied and applied for estimation of the sediment transport under ice cover condition. According to the results, the most suitable methods were planned to be a part of the river ice numerical simulation model, developed in this study. Turbulent characteristics in ice covered flows are also studied through two years of data recordings. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler employed in this study is programmed for appropriate recording of the water velocity for this purpose. Results are analyzed and turbulent structures in the river are studied in this research as well. Step 4: Testing of Hatch-MH’s river ice simulation model. A numerical model has been selected in order to simulate the river ice process at the study site (LNR). ICESIM, a steady state, one-dimensional river ice process model originally developed in 1973 by Acres International Limited (now Hatch), is selected for this study.ICESIM is originally developed in FORTRAN and is capable of predicting the progression and stabilization of river ice cover. Step 5: Improvement of Hatch-MH’s river ice simulation model: ICESIM model is converted to Matlab as the first step of the model improvements. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is designed for the program which facilitates the assessment of model performance during the simulation leads to a more user-friendly model to operate. The new model, ICESIMAT is calibrated and evaluated based on the conducted field studies. Simulation capabilities of ICESIMAT are improved in the form of extended or additional subroutines to enhance its capabilities in the simulation of river ice processes and sediment transport. The current version of ICESIMAT is a steady state model, capable of simulating river ice , river hydrodynamic characteristics and sediment transport along the study reach. Though the model is restricted in the terms of the dimensions of the simulation (only one dimensional) its lower computational cost, permits a longer study reach to be simulated (in the scale of hundred kilometers instead of couple hundred meters in three dimensional simulation). ICESIM model is unable to simulate the break-up period which reduces the model capability in the simulation of the complete cycle of river ice. New subroutines are designed and added to extend the model capability to include simulation of ice processes during the ice cover break-up and finally to calculate the sediment transport under the ice cover. Step 6: As the final step, the new subroutines are adjusted and linked to the main improved code, providing a new framework for dynamic ice cover simulation, more prepared for further future improvements both in terms of conceptual and programming aspects of the river ice modeling . The new Matlab basis of the code facilitates upgrading the model to include more complicated processes like river ice jam simulations. As the general result of this thesis, we have a better understanding of hydraulics and sediment transport processes in ice covered rivers ( direct and indirect measurements of river hydraulics characteristics), improved formulas for these processes (including more involving parameters) and a better version of the river ice simulation model (capable of simulating the complete river ice processes) for the contributors to this study in the industry.
dc.publisherUniversité d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa
dc.subjectRiver ice cover
dc.subjectAcoustic techniques
dc.subjectRiver Hydraulics
dc.subjectSediment transport
dc.titleInfluence of Dynamic Ice Cover on River Hydraulics and Sediment Transport
dc.contributor.supervisorRennie, Colin
dc.contributor.supervisorSeidou, Ousmaneénie / Engineering
uottawa.departmentGénie civil / Civil Engineering
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -