Single and Multiple Emitter Localization in Cognitive Radio Networks

Description
Title: Single and Multiple Emitter Localization in Cognitive Radio Networks
Authors: Ureten, Suzan
Date: 2017
Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) is often described as a context-intelligent radio, capable of changing the transmit parameters dynamically based on the interaction with the environment it operates. The work in this thesis explores the problem of using received signal strength (RSS) measurements taken by a network of CR nodes to generate an interference map of a given geographical area and estimate the locations of multiple primary transmitters that operate simultaneously in the area. A probabilistic model of the problem is developed, and algorithms to address location estimation challenges are proposed. Three approaches are proposed to solve the localization problem. The first approach is based on estimating the locations from the generated interference map when no information about the propagation model or any of its parameters is present. The second approach is based on approximating the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the transmitter locations with the grid search method when the model is known and its parameters are available. The third approach also requires the knowledge of model parameters but it is actually based on generating samples from the joint posterior of the unknown location parameter with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, as an alternative for the highly computationally complex grid search approach. For RF cartography generation problem, we study global and local interpolation techniques, specifically the Delaunay triangulation based techniques as the use of existing triangulation provides a computationally attractive solution. We present a comparative performance evaluation of these interpolation techniques in terms of RF field strength estimation and emitter localization. Even though the estimates obtained from the generated interference maps are less accurate compared to the ML estimator, the rough estimates are utilized to initialize a more accurate algorithm such as the MCMC technique to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. The complexity issues of ML estimators based on full grid search are also addressed by various types of iterative grid search methods. One challenge to apply the ML estimation algorithm to multiple emitter localization problem is that, it requires a pdf approximation to summands of log-normal random variables for likelihood calculations at each grid location. This inspires our investigations on sum of log-normal approximations studied in literature for selecting the appropriate approximation to our model assumptions. As a final extension of this work, we propose our own approximation based on distribution fitting to a set of simulated data and compare our approach with Fenton-Wilkinson's well-known approximation which is a simple and computational efficient approach that fits a log-normal distribution to sum of log-normals by matching the first and second central moments of random variables. We demonstrate that the location estimation accuracy of the grid search technique obtained with our proposed approximation is higher than the one obtained with Fenton-Wilkinson's in many different case scenarios.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/35692
http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-649
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
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