Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent

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Title: Ovulation but not milt production is inhibited in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a reproductively inhibitory pulp mill effluent
Authors: Waye, Andrew
Lado, Wudu E
Martel, Pierre H
Arnason, John T
Trudeau, Vance L
Date: 2014-05-22
Abstract: Abstract Background A 5-day fathead minnow (FHM) spawning assay is used by industry to monitor pulp mill effluent quality, with some mill effluents capable of completely inhibiting spawning. The purpose of this report is to characterize the effect of an inhibitory effluent on egg and milt production in FHM. Methods Eight tanks were treated with an inhibitory effluent while eight were kept with clean water. Each tank contained two males and four females as per the 5-day FHM spawning assay used by industry. Females were stripped of ovulated eggs and males of milt in four effluent-exposed and four control tanks. Eggs oviposited in every tank were also counted and checked for fertilization and data analyzed with 2-way ANOVA. Results We show that female, but not male, fathead minnow reproductive function is impaired in the 5-day fathead minnow spawning assay used by industry to evaluate pulp mill effluent quality in Canada. Milt production was not changed in the control or exposed males mid-way and at the end of the five day exposure (p > 0.05; n = 8). Total egg production (stripped + oviposited) was impaired (p < 0.05) in fathead minnows exposed to effluent (288 eggs/tank, n = 4 tanks) compared to those in control tanks (753 eggs/tank, n = 4 tanks). Conclusions Our results indicate that males are able to detect female signals and prepare appropriately for spawning while in females inhibition of ovulation is occurring somewhere along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad reproductive axis. These results suggest female-specific neuroendocrine disruption and provide mechanistic insight into an assay used by industry to assess pulp mill effluent quality.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-12-43
http://hdl.handle.net/10393/33701
CollectionLibre accès - Publications // Open Access - Publications
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