Comparing multiple competing interventions in the absence of randomized trials using clinical risk-benefit analysis

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Title: Comparing multiple competing interventions in the absence of randomized trials using clinical risk-benefit analysis
Authors: Lazo-Langner, Alejandro
Rodger, Marc A
Barrowman, Nicholas J
Ramsay, Tim
Wells, Philip S
Coyle, Douglas A
Date: 2012-01-10
Abstract: Abstract Background To demonstrate the use of risk-benefit analysis for comparing multiple competing interventions in the absence of randomized trials, we applied this approach to the evaluation of five anticoagulants to prevent thrombosis in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Methods Using a cost-effectiveness approach from a clinical perspective (i.e. risk benefit analysis) we compared thromboprophylaxis with warfarin, low molecular weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, fondaparinux or ximelagatran in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, with sub-analyses according to surgery type. Proportions and variances of events defining risk (major bleeding) and benefit (thrombosis averted) were obtained through a meta-analysis and used to define beta distributions. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted and used to calculate incremental risks, benefits, and risk-benefit ratios. Finally, net clinical benefit was calculated for all replications across a range of risk-benefit acceptability thresholds, with a reference range obtained by estimating the case fatality rate - ratio of thrombosis to bleeding. Results The analysis showed that compared to placebo ximelagatran was superior to other options but final results were influenced by type of surgery, since ximelagatran was superior in total knee replacement but not in total hip replacement. Conclusions Using simulation and economic techniques we demonstrate a method that allows comparing multiple competing interventions in the absence of randomized trials with multiple arms by determining the option with the best risk-benefit profile. It can be helpful in clinical decision making since it incorporates risk, benefit, and personal risk acceptance.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-3
http://hdl.handle.net/10393/33598
CollectionLibre accès - Publications // Open Access - Publications
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