Retinoic acid promotes myogenesis in myoblasts by antagonizing transforming growth factor-beta signaling via C/EBPβ

Title: Retinoic acid promotes myogenesis in myoblasts by antagonizing transforming growth factor-beta signaling via C/EBPβ
Authors: Lamarche, Émilie
Lala-Tabbert, Neena
Gunanayagam, Angelo
St-Louis, Catherine
Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine
Date: 2015-03-18
Abstract: Abstract Background The effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) are mediated by the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3. During adult skeletal myogenesis, TGFβ signaling inhibits the differentiation of myoblasts, and this can be reversed by treatment with retinoic acid (RA). In mesenchymal stem cells and preadipocytes, RA treatment can function in a non-classical manner by stimulating the expression of Smad3. Smad3 can bind to and prevent the bzip transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) from binding DNA response elements in target promoters, thereby affecting cell differentiation. In skeletal muscle, C/EBPβ is highly expressed in satellite cells and myoblasts and is downregulated during differentiation. Persistent expression of C/EBPβ in myoblasts inhibits their differentiation. Methods Using both C2C12 myoblasts and primary myoblasts, we examined the regulation of C/EBPβ expression and activity following treatment with TGFβ and RA. Results We demonstrate that treatment with RA upregulates Smad3, but not Smad2 expression in myoblasts, and can partially rescue the block of differentiation induced by TGFβ. RA treatment reduces C/EBPβ occupancy of the Pax7 and Smad2 promoters and decreased their expression. RA also inhibits the TGFβ-mediated phosphorylation of Smad2, which may also contribute to its pro-myogenic activities. TGFβ treatment of C2C12 myoblasts stimulates C/EBPβ expression, which in turn can stimulate Pax7 and Smad2 expression, and inhibits myogenesis. Loss of C/EBPβ expression in myoblasts partially restores differentiation in the presence of TGFβ. Conclusions TGFβ acts, at least in part, to inhibit myogenesis by upregulating the expression of C/EBPβ, as treatment with RA or loss of C/EBPβ can partially rescue differentiation in TGFβ-treated cells. This work identifies a pro-myogenic role for Smad3, through the inhibition of C/EBPβ’s actions in myoblasts, and reveals mechanisms of crosstalk between RA and TGFβ signaling pathways.
CollectionLibre accès - Publications // Open Access - Publications