Discerning the Mechanism of Gamma Delta T Cell-Mediated Damage in Multiple Sclerosis: the Potential Role of Antibodies in Disease Pathogenesis

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Title: Discerning the Mechanism of Gamma Delta T Cell-Mediated Damage in Multiple Sclerosis: the Potential Role of Antibodies in Disease Pathogenesis
Authors: Black, Jennifer
Date: 2015
Abstract: Background: Both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to autoimmune injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). We have been particularly interested in elucidating the role of the innate γδ T-cell population in MS pathogenesis. In particular, some γδ T-cells that express Fc receptors (FcR), such as CD16, that bind antibody are more prominent with MS disease progression and have been shown to exert cytolysis via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We postulated that if there were also relevant and detectable antibodies in MS patients that might engage these FcR-bearing γδ T-cells then this might be a purported mechanism of neuro-axonal injury. A search for antibodies specific to axonal elements in MS revealed the presence of antibodies to neurofascin (Nfasc). Methods: Anti-Nfasc antibody titres, and concentrations of the light and heavy chains of neurofilament (NfL and NfH, respectively), markers of neuro-axonal injury, were measured in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), including those that underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), both prior to and yearly for 3 years thereafter. HeLa cells were transfected with the axonal variant of Nfasc, Nfasc-186, and were utilized as targets in ADCC assays involving γδ T-cells as the effectors, and anti-Nfasc antibodies that were enriched from MS patient sera. Results: Positive anti-Nfasc antibody titres were detected in of 22% and 25% of MS patient sera and CSF, respectively. The most elevated serum titres were in secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and highest CSF titres in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) (p<0.05 and p<0.0001, respectively, vs. other neurological disease [OND] controls). Patient serum and CSF antibody titres correlated and, in the CSF, the titres correlated positively with the concentration of NfL. Though NfL and NfH concentrations declined markedly following aHSCT in the CSF, anti-Nfasc antibody titres failed to decline. When co-cultured with CD16+ γδ T-cells in the presence of MS patient-derived anti-Nfasc antibodies, the percent specific cytolysis of the Nfasc-transfected HeLa cells was significantly greater than that of the non-transfected control HeLa cells, at 18% and 1%, respectively, indicating cytolytic kill via ADCC. Summary: Anti-Nfasc antibodies were detectable in the sera and CSF of MS patients, and rarely in OND controls, suggesting they are relevant to MS. Higher titres in the serum support peripheral synthesis, while higher CSF titres in the relapsing phase, that correlate with serum titres, imply that antibodies access the CNS during periods of active inflammation that are associated with disruption of the blood-CSF barrier. CSF anti-Nfasc antibody titres correlated strongly with the release of NfL, suggesting that axonal injury could be related to the presence of Nfasc-specific antibodies. Following aHSCT, CSF NfL and NfH release were reduced without concomitant CSF anti-Nfasc antibody reductions, suggesting that the presence alone of anti-Nfasc antibodies is not enough to cause axonal injury. Indeed, when co-cultured with CD16+ γδ T-cells in the presence of MS patient-derived anti-Nfasc antibodies, the percent specific cytolysis of the Nfasc-transfected HeLa cells was significantly greater than that of the non-transfected control HeLa cells, proving that FcR-bearing γδ T-cells can cause axonal damage by lysing axonal membranes via ADCC, when armed with axon-specific antibodies such as anti-Nfasc. This is the first report of γδ T-cell-mediated cytolysis by ADCC using both γδ T-cells and antibodies derived from MS patients.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/31925
http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-2685
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
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