Mitochondrial hyperfusion during oxidative stress is coupled to a dysregulation in calcium handling within a C2C12 cell model

Title: Mitochondrial hyperfusion during oxidative stress is coupled to a dysregulation in calcium handling within a C2C12 cell model
Authors: Redpath, Calum J
Bou Khalil, Maroun
Drozdzal, Gregory
Radisic, Milica
McBride, Heidi M
Date: 2013
Abstract: Atrial Fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia worldwide harming millions of people every year. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) abruptly induces rapid conduction between atrial myocytes which is associated with oxidative stress and abnormal calcium handling. Unfortunately this new equilibrium promotes perpetuation of the arrhythmia. Recently, in addition to being the major source of oxidative stress within cells, mitochondria have been observed to fuse, forming mitochondrial networks and attach to intracellular calcium stores in response to cellular stress. We sought to identify a potential role for rapid stimulation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial hyperfusion in acute changes to myocyte calcium handling. In addition we hoped to link altered calcium handling to increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-mitochondrial contacts, the so-called mitochondrial associated membrane (MAM). We selected the C2C12 murine myotube model as it has previously been successfully used to investigate mitochondrial dynamics and has a myofibrillar system similar to atrial myocytes. We observed that rapid stimulation of C2C12 cells resulted in mitochondrial hyperfusion and increased mitochondrial colocalisation with calcium stores. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission by transfection of mutant DRP1K38E resulted in similar effects on mitochondrial fusion, SR colocalisation and altered calcium handling. Interestingly the effects of 'forced fusion' were reversed by co-incubation with the reducing agent N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC). Subsequently we demonstrated that oxidative stress resulted in similar reversible increases in mitochondrial fusion, SR-colocalisation and altered calcium handling. Finally, we believe we have identified that myocyte calcium handling is reliant on baseline levels of reactive oxygen species as co-incubation with NAC both reversed and retarded myocyte response to caffeine induced calcium release and re-uptake. Based on these results we conclude that the coordinate regulation of mitochondrial fusion and MAM contacts may form a point source for stress-induced arrhythmogenesis. We believe that the MAM merits further investigation as a therapeutic target in AF-induced remodelling.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069165
CollectionLibre accès uOttawa - Publications // uOttawa Open Access - Publications