The effect of vitamin A micronutrient intervention on xerophthalmia prevalence in vulnerable populations

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Title: The effect of vitamin A micronutrient intervention on xerophthalmia prevalence in vulnerable populations
Authors: Yan, Haijiao
Gedeon, Jillian
Rahman, Tarun
Riddoch, Heather
Date: 2012
Abstract: The effect of vitamin A micronutrient intervention on xerophthalmia prevalence in vulnerable populations Purpose/Design: Literature review to determine the effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation programs in reducing xerophthalmia and its associated symptoms in vulnerable populations – namely in infants and pre-school aged children using Bitot’s spots and night blindness as indicators. Question: Does active micronutrient intervention, by providing vitamin A supplementation, decrease prevalence of xerophthalmia in vulnerable populations as indicated by the prevalence of Bitot’s spots and night blindness in children less than 6 years of age? Methods: Review of literature from PubMed and SCOPUS databases that included randomized controlled trials and vitamin A supplementation programme analyses. Data collected was restricted to prevalence of Bitot’s spots and/or nyctalopia. Exclusion criteria were set so that only peer-reviewed trials were used from publications dated 1986 and onwards. Results: 8 studies were selection based on availability of comparisons between pre- and post-intervention data or experimental group and control group data, 4 of which were statistically significant. There has been a decrease of xerophthalmia prevalence after vitamin A supplementation in the experimental and post-intervention group from 1.9 to 0.3% (P<0.05), 2.31 to 0.64% (95% CI, 0.17-0.79), 24.6 to 11.2% (P<0.001), and from 6.9 to 3.3% (P<0.0001) in an RCT in Indonesia (n = 12591), an RCT in Nepal (n= 1871), a pre/post evaluation in India (n= 818, a pre/post evaluation in Mali (n=1524), respectively. Discussion: Internal validity was not compromised due to the structured and rigorous nature of selection criteria. Confounders in our methodology included gender and age. The prevalence of both Bitot’s spots and night blindness are known to be higher in boys12, however data collected was not gender-specific and therefore inferences can only be applied to children in general. Conclusion: According to the presented data, vitamin A supplementation is a key intervention in reducing prevalence of xerophthalmia in vulnerable populations.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/30966
CollectionSciences de la santé - Affiches // Health Sciences - Research Posters
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