The Effects of HIV on the Regulation of IL-12 Family Cytokines, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 Production in Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages

Description
Title: The Effects of HIV on the Regulation of IL-12 Family Cytokines, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 Production in Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages
Authors: O'Hara, Shifawn R.K.
Date: 2012
Abstract: IL-12 family cytokines IL-23 and IL-27 play an important role linking innate and adaptive immunity, and regulating T-cell responses. The production of IL-12, a structurally similar cytokine, is decreased in chronic HIV infection; therefore IL-23 and IL-27 may also be influenced by HIV infection. I hypothesized that HIV inhibits LPS-induced IL-23 and IL-27 production in human MDMs by suppressing the activation of signalling pathways regulating their expression. In vitro HIV-infection of MDMs did not have any effect on basal secretion of IL-23 or IL-27; however, HIV inhibited LPS-induced production of IL-12/23 p40 and IL-23 p19, and IL-27 EBI3 and IL-27 p28 mRNA expression, and IL-23, IL-12/23 p40 and IL-27 secretion. In order to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which HIV inhibits IL-23 and IL-27 in LPS-stimulated MDMs, the signalling pathways regulating their expression were evaluated. The PI3K, p38 MAPK, and JNK MAPK pathways were found to positively regulate LPS-induced IL-27 secretion. Interestingly, in vitro HIV infection inhibited LPS-induced p38 and JNK MAPK activation in MDMs. In summary, I have shown that HIV inhibits IL-23 and IL-27 production in LPS-stimulated MDMs and that HIV may inhibit LPS-induced IL-27 production through the inhibition of p38 and JNK MAPK activation. It is currently unknown whether PKCs regulate LPS-induced IL-23 or IL-27 in human monocytes/macrophages. I demonstrated that classical PKCs differentially regulate LPS-induced IL-23 and IL-27 secretion within THP-1 cells, primary monocytes, and MDMs. Classical PKCs were found to positively regulate LPS-induced IL-12/23 p40 and IL-27 p28 mRNA expression and IL-12/23 p40, IL-23, and IL-27 secretion in primary human monocytes. Similarly, the classical PKCs were found to positively regulate IL-27 p28 mRNA expression and IL-27 secretion in THP-1 cells. However, classical PKCs did not regulate LPS-induced IL-27 production in MDMs, or LPS-induced IL-23 production in THP-1 cells. Overall, this demonstrates that classical PKCs differentially regulate LPS-induced IL-23 and IL-27 production in different myeloid cells.
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10393/23220
http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-5966
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -
Files