cIAP2 Negatively Regulates Proliferation and Tumourigenesis by Repressing IKK Activity and Maintaining p53 Function

Title: cIAP2 Negatively Regulates Proliferation and Tumourigenesis by Repressing IKK Activity and Maintaining p53 Function
Authors: Lau, Rosanna
Date: 2012
Abstract: The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-2 plays an important role in the protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the endogenous IAP inhibitor Smac, thus allowing other members of the IAP family, such as XIAP to block caspases. Additionally, cIAP2 functions as a ubiquitin ligase and mediates survival/proliferative signaling through NF-κB. cIAP2 is overexpressed in many human cancers and is believed to play an oncogenic role. This led to the development of small molecule IAP antagonists aimed at eliciting apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the loss of cIAP2 is also associated with multiple myeloma, in which constitutively active NF-κB signaling contributes to pathogenesis of the disease and suggests that cIAP2 may also perform a tumour suppressive function. We demonstrate a novel role for cIAP2 in maintaining p53 levels in mammary epithelial cells that express wildtype p53. Downregulation of cIAP2 resulted in activation of IKKs, which led to increased Mdm2-mediated degradation of p53. cIAP2 depletion also led to increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Reduction of p53 levels, in combination with survival signaling provided by NF-κB and MEK-ERK pathways were associated with increased colony formation in vitro and increased DMBA-induced adenocarcinomas in cIAP2-null mice. Treatment of cells with IAP antagonists resulted in significant cytotoxicity only in p53-mutant MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with autocrine production of TNF-α. We propose that the transcription of TNF-α is potentiated by gain-of-function mutation in p53 since downregulation of mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 cells decreased TNF-α mRNA. Downregulation of cIAPs in p53-mutant cells resulted in a decrease in nuclear IKK-α, which may result in decreased IKK-α-mediated survival signaling. In contrast, cIAP downregulation in p53-wildtype cells resulted in no change in nuclear IKK-α, degradation of the corepressor SMRT and cell survival. We show that the effects of cIAP2 downregulation are context-dependent. Downregulation of cIAP2 in p53-wildtype cells results in a decrease in p53 and an increase in survival and proliferative signaling. These results suggest a tumour suppressor function for cIAPs that may account for cIAP mutation-associated cancers such as multiple myeloma. Moreover, our data also defines gain-of-function p53 mutation as a possible contributor to IAP antagonist sensitivity.
CollectionThèses, 2011 - // Theses, 2011 -